A Word on Peer Review (Fractures)

There is a great profusion of medical information available for free on the Internet, and a lot of it is good. Yet even good information may not be completely useful to the reader who may not know if it is trustworthy. By contrast, there is also a lot of information of medical information available for sale that is produced by well known authors and organizations, though not always for free.

This volume aims to be both free and accurate.

To ensure medical accuracy, each chapter was reviewed by an expertwho was not involved in the creation of the material. These reviewers wereasked to read the chapter with one overriding goal in mind: to detect errors.The reviewers were then asked to "certify" the chapter as areasonable presentation of the topic without any glaring mistakes in content.We are grateful to our reviewers, listed below:

Peer Reviewers

  • Jaimo Ahn, MD, PhD, is a chiefof orthopaedic trauma at the University of Michigan. Dr. Ahn reviewed Distal Radius(Colles) Fractures.
  • Greg Bain, MBBS, FRACS, PhD, isa Professor of Upper Limb Surgery and Research at Flinders University. Dr. Bain reviewedOlecranon Fractures.
  • Zsolt J. Balogh, MD PhD, FRACS (ortho),FACS, is a Professor of Traumatology and Surgery, University of Newcastle. Dr.Balogh reviewed Fractures ofthe Femoral Shaft and Distal Femur.
  • Joseph Bernstein, MD, is a Clinical Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at theUniversity of Pennsylvania. Dr. Bernstein reviewed Low Energy Trauma and Frailty.
  • Martin Boyer, MD, FRCS(C), is ahand surgeon at Washington University, St Louis. He holds subspecialtycertification in Surgery of the Hand. Dr. Boyer reviewed Radial Head Fractures.
  • David Bozentka, MD, is a handsurgeon at the University of PA. He holds subspecialty certification in Surgeryof the Hand. Dr. Bozentka reviewed Carpal Fractures.
  • Gwyneth deVries, MD, FRCSC, is aFoot and Ankle Orthopaedic Surgeon at the Horizon Health Network, Fredericton,New Brunswick, Canada and an assistant professor at Dalhousie University. Dr.deVries reviewed Metatarsal Fractures.
  • Derek Donegan, MD, is a is afellowship trained orthopaedic trauma surgeon at the University of PA. Dr.Donegan reviewed Ulnar andRadial Shaft Fractures.
  • Ruurd L. Jaarsma, MD, PhD,FRACS, is a Professor of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery at Flinders University,Adelaide. Dr. Jaarsma reviewed Tibia Fractures.
  • Robert Leland, MD, is a Foot andAnkle Orthopaedic Surgeon at BoulderCentre for Orthopedics. Dr. Leland reviewedAnkle Fractures.
  • Ying Li, MD, an AssociateProfessor of Pediatric Orthopaedics at the University of Michigan. Ft Li reviewed PediatricFractures of the Lower Extremities.
  • Stephen Pinney, MD, MEd, FRCS(C),is a Foot and Ankle Orthopaedic Surgeon at the Cleveland clinic. Dr. Pinneyreviewed Midfoot Trauma and Hindfoot Fractures.
  • Tony P. Pohl, MD, FRACS, is an EmeritusAssociate Professor and previous Director of Orthopaedic Trauma at RoyalAdelaide Hospital. Dr. Pohl reviewed Acute CompartmentSyndrome.
  • Boopalan Ramasamy, MBBS, MS, FRACS,is an Associate Professor at the University of Adelaide. Dr. Ramasamy reviewed Patellar Fractures.
  • Robert Rhoad, MD, is a handsurgeon at Wellington Orthopaedics in Cincinnati. He holds subspecialtycertification in Surgery of the Hand. Dr. Rhoad reviewed Metacarpal Fractures.
  • Anthony I. Riccio, MD, directorof the Center for Excellence in Foot at Scottish Rite for Children reviewedPediatric Fractures of the Upper Extremities.
  • Tamara Rozental, MD, is a handsurgeon at Harvard Medical School. She holds subspecialty certification inSurgery of the Hand. Dr. Rozental reviewed Phalangeal (Hand) Fractures.
  • Michael Sandow, BMBS, FRACS,PhD, is a Clinical Professor and orthopaedic surgeon specializing in upper limbconditions at the Wakefield Orthopaedic Clinic, Adelaide. Dr. Sandow reviewed ScapularFractures.
  • Jonathan G. Schoenecker, MD,PhD, is an Associate Professor of Orthopaedics, Pediatrics, Pathology andPharmacology at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Schoenecker reviewed Fracturesof the Growth Plate.
  • John Scolaro, MD is anorthopaedic traumatologist at the University of California, Irvine. Dr. Scolaroreviewed Proximal Humerus Fractures and Clavicle Fractures.
  • Peter Smitham, PhD FRCS (Tr& Orth), FRACS, is an Associate Professor and Orthopaedics and TraumaConsultant at Royal Adelaide Hospital. Dr. Smitham reviewed Hip Fractures.
  • L. Bogdan Solomon MD, PhD,FRACS, FIOR, is a Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma, University ofAdelaide, specializing in lower limb reconstruction at the Royal AdelaideHospital. Dr. Solomon reviewed Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures.
  • David Sonnabend, AM, MBBS, BSc (med),FRACS, isa Professor Emeritus ofOrthopaedic and Traumatic Surgery at the University of Sydney. Dr. Sonnabendreviewed ProximalHumerus Fractures.
  • Robert Jewell Wilson II, MD, isan orthopedic oncologist at the Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center. Dr. Wilsonreviewed MetastaticBone Disease and Pathological Fractures.
  • Jennifer M. Wolf, MD, PhD, is ahand surgeon at the University of Connecticut. She holds subspecialtycertification in Surgery of the Hand. Dr. Wolf reviewed Scaphoid Fractures.


Peer-review notwithstanding, this being 21st century America, we must include the following Disclaimer, similar to those found in works produced by well known authors and organizations.

This material was prepared for educational purposes only. We therefore disclaim any and all liability for any damages resulting to any individual which may arise out of the use of the material presented here. We similarly disclaim responsibility for any errors or omissions or for results obtained from the use of information contained here.

This material is not intended to represent the only, nor necessarily best, method or procedure appropriate for the medical situations discussed, but rather is intended to present an approach which may be helpful to others who face similar situations. We cannot can take any responsibility for the consequences following the application of any of the information presented here.

The information provided here cannot substitute for the advice of a medical professional. Even if a given statement is completely true in the abstract, it may not apply to a given patient.

The information we offer is provided “as is” and without warranty of any kind.

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