A Word on Peer Review

To ensure accuracy (and equally important, to allow readers to trust what they are reading), each chapter was reviewed by an expert who was not involved in the creation of the material. These reviewers were asked to read the chapter with one overriding goal in mind: to detect errors. The reviewers were then asked to publicly "certify" the chapter as a reasonable presentation of the topic without any glaring mistakes in content.

Our expert reviewers, and the chapters they have endorsed, are listed below:

  • Dr. Louis M. Adler reviewed Dupuytren's Disease and Finger and Hand Infections
  • Dr. Jaimo Ahn reviewed Distal Radius (Colles) Fractures
  • Dr. Elizabeth Ames reviewed Spinal Infection
  • Dr. Lindsay Andras reviewed Early Onset Scoliosis
  • Dr. Christopher Arena reviewed Achilles Tendon Disorders
  • Dr. Greg Bain reviewed Olecranon Fractures
  • Dr. Keith Baldwin reviewed Cerebral Palsy
  • Dr. Zsolt J. Balogh reviewed Fractures of the Femoral Shaft and Distal Femur
  • Dr. Michael Barnett reviewed Osteomyelitis
  • Dr. Nicole Belkin reviewed Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Knee and Cruciate Ligament Injuries of the Knee
  • Dr. Pedro Beredjiklian reviewed Kienbock's disease
  • Dr. Joseph Bernstein reviewed Low Energy Trauma and Frailty
  • Dr. Philip Blazar reviewed DeQuervains Disease
  • Dr. Martin Boyer reviewed Radial Head Fractures
  • Dr. David Bozentka reviewed Carpal Fractures
  • Dr. Jean Brilhault reviewed Achilles Tendon Rupture
  • Dr. Dennis Brown reviewed Arthritis of the Hip
  • Dr. Michelle S. Caird reviewed Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
  • Dr. James Carey reviewed Meniscus Tears and Chondral Injuries of the Knee
  • Dr. Robert Carrigan reviewed Disorders of the Nail and Mallet Finger and Other Finger Extensor Injuries
  • Dr. Michael Castro reviewed Ankle Sprains
  • Dr. Steven Cohen reviewed Disorders of the Elbow Ligaments and Osteochondral Injuries of the Elbow
  • Dr. Daniel Cuttica reviewed Diabetic Foot Disorders
  • Dr. Peter Derman reviewed Lumbar Spondylosis
  • Dr. Gwyneth deVries reviewed Metatarsal Fractures
  • Dr. Christopher DiGiovanni reviewed Morton's Neuroma
  • Dr. Derek Donegan reviewed Ulnar and Radial Shaft Fractures
  • Dr. Matthew Dorweiler reviewed Gout and Pseudogout
  • Dr. John Early reviewed Plantar Fasciitis
  • Dr. Malcolm Ecker reviewed Cervical Radiculopathy and Myelopathy and Spinal Trauma & Spinal Cord Injury: Specific Injuries
  • Dr. Daniel Farber reviewed Stress Fractures of the Foot
  • Dr. Eric Fester reviewed Osteonecrosis
  • Dr. Kevin Freedman reviewed Patellofemoral Disorders
  • Dr. Gary E. Friedlaender reviewed Orthopaedic Oncology
  • Dr. Michael Glotzbecker reviewed Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
  • Dr. Jonathan Grauer reviewed Lumbar Disc Disease
  • Dr. Daniel Guss reviewed Stress Fractures of the Foot
  • Dr. Kamran Hamid reviewed Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Dr. Sommer Hammoud reviewed Adhesive Capsulitis and Glenohumeral Instability
  • Dr. Michael Herbenick reviewed Paget’s Disease
  • Dr. Marty Herman reviewed Non-Accidental Trauma / Child Abuse
  • Dr. B. David Horn reviewed Pediatric Foot Deformities
  • Dr. Kenneth Hunt reviewed Tendon Disorders of the Foot and Ankle
  • Dr. Ken Illingworth reviewed Down Syndrome
  • Dr. Ruurd L. Jaarsma reviewed Tibia Fractures
  • Dr. Jeffrey James reviewed Lyme Disease
  • Dr. Jennifer Jerele reviewed Septic Arthritis
  • Dr. Paul Juliano reviewed Achilles Tendon Disorders
  • Dr. Rahul Kapur reviewed Stress Fractures and the Female Athletic Triad
  • Dr. Judson Karlen reviewed Muscular Dystrophy
  • Dr. John D. Kelly IV reviewed Scapulothoracic Disorders
  • Dr. Eric O Klineberg reviewed Spinal Trauma & Spinal Cord Injury: General Principles
  • Dr. Aloiya Kremer reviewed Osteoporosis
  • Dr. Paul Krebs reviewed Fibromyalgia
  • Dr. Andrew Kuntz reviewed Lateral and Medial Epicondylitis of the Elbow
  • Dr. Amy Ladd reviewed Trigger Finger
  • Dr. Matthew Lawless reviewed Arthritis of the Knee
  • Dr. Charles F. Leinberry reviewed Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Dr. Robert Leland reviewed Ankle Fractures
  • Dr. Ying Li reviewed Pediatric Fractures of the Lower Extremities
  • Dr. Ray Liu reviewed Pediatric Lower Limb Deformity
  • Dr. Jonas Matzon reviewed Compression Neuropathies of the Arm and Flexor Tendon Injuries of the Hand
  • Dr. Samir Mehta reviewed Olecranon Fractures
  • Dr. Andrew Milby reviewed Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthropathies; Burners and Stingers; and Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis
  • Dr. Bruce A. Monaghan reviewed Carpal Instability
  • Dr. Vincent Mosca reviewed Clubfoot
  • Dr. Rob Murphy reviewed Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
  • Dr. Kevin O’Donnell reviewed Disorders of the Rotator Cuff and Glenohumeral Arthritis
  • Dr. David Oji reviewed Diabetic Foot Disorders
  • Dr. Ariel Palanca reviewed Disorders of the Lesser Toes
  • Dr. Vinod Panchbhavi reviewed Clubfoot
  • Dr. Mark Perry reviewed Disorders of the Great Toe
  • Dr. Stephen Pinney reviewed Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle; Biomechanics of the Foot and Ankle; Midfoot Trauma; and Hindfoot Fractures
  • Dr. Tony P. Pohl reviewed Acute Compartment Syndrome
  • Dr. Boopalan Ramasamy reviewed Patellar Fractures
  • Dr. Robert Rhoad reviewed Metacarpal Fractures
  • Dr. Anthony I. Riccio reviewed Pediatric Injuries of the Upper Extremities
  • Dr. Tamara Rozental reviewed Phalangeal (Hand) Fractures
  • Dr. Vani Sabesan reviewed Olecranon Bursitis
  • Dr. John Salvo reviewed Tendon Disorders of the Hip and Thigh and Labral Tears of the Hip and Femoroacetabular Impingement
  • Dr. Julia Sanders reviewed Pediatric Musculoskeletal Infections
  • Dr. Michael Sandow reviewed Scapular Fractures
  • Dr. Jeff Sawyer reviewed Scheuermann’s Kyphosis
  • Dr. Jonathan G. Schoenecker reviewed Fractures of the Growth Plate
  • Dr. John Scolaro reviewed Proximal Humerus Fractures and Clavicle Fractures
  • Dr. Lance Silverman reviewed Metatarsal Fractures
  • Dr. Peter Smitham reviewed Hip Fractures
  • Dr. L. Bogdan Solomon reviewed Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures
  • Dr. David Sonnabend reviewed Proximal Humerus Fractures
  • Dr. Paul Sponseller reviewed Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  • Dr. Brian Synder reviewed Spinal Muscular Atrophy
  • Dr. Fotios Tjoumakaris reviewed Disorders of the Biceps and Triceps
  • Dr. David Townshend reviewed Plantar Fasciitis
  • Dr. Bradford Tucker reviewed Disorders of the Extensor Mechanism
  • Dr. Salil Upasani reviewed Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
  • Dr. Anthony Van Bergeyk reviewed Rheumatoid Disorders of the Foot and Ankle
  • Dr. Ann Van Heest reviewed Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) Injury
  • Dr. Pramod Voleti reviewed Disorders of the Acromioclavicular Joint and Bursitis of the Knee
  • Dr. Colyn Watkins reviewed Spina Bifida
  • Dr. Lawrence Weber reviewed Ganglion Cysts of the Hand and Wrist
  • Dr. Robert Jewell Wilson II reviewed Metastatic Bone Disease and Pathological Fractures
  • Dr. Jennifer M. Wolf reviewed Scaphoid Fractures
  • Dr. Kirk L. Wong reviewed Finger Sprains and Dislocations
  • Dr. Miltiadis Zgonis reviewed Disorders of the Glenoid Labrum

In addition, the material was also reviewed for clarity and errors by the following medical student volunteers:

Mariia Alibekova Long
Marten Basta
Alexander Beschloss
Joshua Bram
Tadi Chirongom
Olivia Cohen
William Cohen
Jon Datillo
Eric Dein
Conor Dolson
Phillip Dowzicky
Benjamin Frost
Jacob Ghahremani
Doria Gold
Chrissy Goodbody
Lindsay Grossman

Jacob Harris
Nathan Hasbani
Emilia Hermann
Brogran Hill
William Huffman
Lori Jia
David Jimenez
Alexandra Johnson
Christy Johnson
Mitchell Johnson
Derek Ju
Omair Kazi
Mike Kheir
Pranav Kodali
Ben Laguna
Christine Limonte

Caitlin McAuliffe
Ariana Meltzer-Bruhn
Emily Miller
Stuart Mitchell
Luke Murphy
Anchi Numfor
Nicolas Pascual-Leone
Brent Pottenger
Christian Rodriguez
Joseph Ruzbarsky
Brett Shannon
Oscar Shen
Dennis Sievers
Christy Soran
Margaret Tamburro
Steven Tsai

A Necessary Disclaimer

Peer-review notwithstanding, this being 21st century America, we must include the following DISCLAIMER, similar to those found in works produced by well-known authors and organizations:

This material was prepared for educational purposes only. We therefore disclaim any and all liability for any damages resulting to any individual which may arise out of the use of the material presented here. We similarly disclaim responsibility for any errors or omissions or for results obtained from the use of information contained here.

This material is not intended to represent the only, nor necessarily best, method or procedure appropriate for the medical situations discussed, but rather is intended to present an approach which may be helpful to others who face similar situations. We cannot can take any responsibility for the consequences following the application of any of the information presented here.

The information provided here cannot substitute for the advice of a medical professional. Even if a given statement is completely true in the abstract, it may not apply to a given patient. The information we offer is provided “as is” and without warranty of any kind.

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